- April 12, 2021
- Posted by: samdenis
The Heartless can be considered the first Korean work to project the Minjok onto the landscape through the movements and imagination of the male figure hyngsik (Mr. Reference Shin Shin, Shin and Robinson 1999). What is remarkable, however, is that the figure of an abandoned woman from the North, an abandoned female figure, is the most dynamic figure, imbued with an inner integrity and determination that hyngsik and Sénhysng lack. Indeed, it is important to remember that Yi originally started the Heartless as The Story of Y`ngch`ae and did not focus on the male protagonist (Seo Reference Yongchae2011, 9; Yi Kwangsu Reference Kwangsu1936). So why does the author use the most impressive traditional literary topoi in the North (the famous “P`y`ngyang kisaeng” Kyewrhyang, Ch`ngnyu Cliff, the Taedong River, Peony Hill) to refer to the Y`ngch`ae? This article argues that even if Yi Kwangsu and his protagonist advance in “national time” – “The heartless is the space of the origins of modern Korean culture, and also the space of discovery of the inner world of the male colonial elite” (Kwak and No Reference Youngmi and No2007, 548) – their hearts and minds (ma`m) are still in the North, not in Seoul, not in Seoul Tokyo. I do not aim to draw the inner development of men by their objectification of female characters, but rather to argue in the lefebvrian and foucauldian sense of the simultaneous temporalities of various and stratified space, as presented by Hyngsik, Yngch`ae and Sénhyed (and their young me), even in a work like The Heartless, traditionally heralded as Paan of modernity. For this reason, the female character y`ngch`ae is as a protagonist of the novel as the hyngsik, and also why Hyngsik constantly runs in the followers of the North in Seoul and speaks the “P`y-ngyang-dialecte” (Yi Kwangsu Reference Kwangsu1917a, 157, episode 36). Footnote 23 So, by the relationship between Hyngsik and Y`ngch`ae with the modernized city, we see that the space of real people is never simply horizontal (Bhabha [reference Bhabha194] in 2006), and in the figure of Yngch`ae which is abandoned, but as the famous places of P`y`ngyang celebrate, the process of return is even considered complicated. Peony Hill (Moranbong) – A very famous place in the history of Korean culture. “Religious suffering,” he wrote in 1844, “is both an expression of true suffering and a protest against real suffering.